Jiang, N.; Xia, W.
Substantial evidence exists that diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Low bone strength as well as bone extrinsic factors are probably contributing to the increased bone fragility in diabetes. Bone density and quality are important determinants of bone strength. Although bone mineral density (BMD) and the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) are very useful clinical tools in assessing bone strength, they may underestimate the fracture risk in diabetes mellitus. Through advances in new technologies such as trabecular bone score (TBS) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), we can better assess the bone quality and fracture risk of patients with diabetes mellitus. Invasive assessments such as microindentation and histomorphometry have been great complement to the existing bone analysis techniques. Bone turnover markers have been found to be altered in diabetes mellitus patients and may be associated with fractures. This review will give a brief summary of the current development and clinical uses of these assessments.