Poiana, Catalina; Capatina, Cristina
Diabetes mellitus, both type 1 and type 2 (T2DM), is associated with decreased bone strength as well as increased fracture risk. Bone mineral density is decreased in type 1 diabetes but increased in T2DM, compared with controls. This suggests alterations in bone quality are a major player in the pathogenesis of fragility fractures in patients with diabetes. The link between diabetes and bone appears to be mediated by complex pathways, including the insulin-insulin growth factors system, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in bone collagen, microangiopathy, and increased bone marrow fat content. Bone fragility in T2DM, which is not reflected by bone mineral density and bone mass reduction, depends on deterioration of bone quality. Also, at least in T2DM, the classical diagnosis of osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the fracture risk estimation by FRAX (fracture risk assessment tool) are only partially useful in assessing fracture risk. Trabecular bone score and trabecular bone score-adjusted FRAX offer an enhanced estimation of fracture risk in these patients. Specific risk stratification criteria are needed in the future. The development of improved methods to assess the material properties of bone to better characterize fracture risk is also a priority. Adequate glycemic control is generally associated with decreased fracture risk, with the exception of specific antidiabetics (thiazolidinediones, canagliflozin) that have been shown to have a detrimental effect. Most currently used antiosteoporotic treatments seem equally effective in diabetic patients as compared with patients without diabetes, but clinical data regarding the reduction in fracture risk specifically in patients with diabetes mellitus are lacking.