Sato, Y.; Iki, M.; Fujita, Y.; Tamaki, J.; Kouda, K.; Yura, A.; Moon, J.-S.; Winzenrieth, R.; Iwaki, H.; Ishizuka, R.; Amano, N.; Tomioka, K.; Okamoto, N.; Kurumatani, N.
The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. INTRODUCTION: The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. METHODS: Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS: The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p < 0.05) and aBMD at TH (p = 0.0019) and FN (p = 0.0057) and TBS (p = 0.0017) showed increasing trends with greater milk intake after adjusting for demographic and behavioral confounding factors. This association was attenuated after further adjusting for nutrient intake, in particular, calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.