Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R.; Ubago-Guisado, Esther; Williams, Craig A.; Gracia-Marco, Luis
PURPOSE: Sports have different effects on bone development and effective interventions to improve bone health of adolescent athletes are needed. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of a 9-month jumping intervention on bone geometry and metabolism in adolescent male athletes METHODS: Ninety-three adolescent (14.1 years old) male swimmers (SWI), footballers (FOO) and cyclists (CYC) were randomized to an intervention and sport (INT-SWI=19, INT-FOO=15, INT-CYC=14) or sport only (CON-SWI =18, CON-FOO =15, CON-CYC =12) groups. Cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and section modulus (Z) at the femoral neck were assessed using hip structural analysis, and trabecular texture of the lumbar spine using trabecular bone score (TBS). Bone mineral content (BMC) at femoral neck and lumbar spine was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PINP), isomer of the Carboxi-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-I), total serum calcium and 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were analysed. RESULTS: INT-CYC acquired significantly higher lumbar spine BMC (4.6 %) and femoral neck BMC (9.8 %) than CON-CYC. INT-CYC acquired significantly higher CSA (11.0 %), CSMI (10.1 %) and TBS (4.4 %) than CON-CYC. INT-SWI acquired significantly higher femoral neck BMC (6.0 %) and CSMI (10.9 %) than CON-SWI. There were no significant differences between INT-FOO and CON-FOO in any bone outcomes. PINP significantly decreased in CON-SWI, INT-FOO, CON-FOO and CON-CYC. CTX-I significantly decreased in CON-SWI and CON-CYC. 25(OH)D significantly increased in INT-CYC, CON-CYC, INT-FOO and CON-FOO. CONCLUSIONS: A 9-month jumping intervention improved bone outcomes in adolescent swimmers and cyclists, but not in footballers. This intervention might be used by sports clubs to improve bone health of adolescent athletes.