Wiepjes, Chantal M.; Vlot, Mariska C.; de Blok, Christel J. M.; Nota, Nienke M.; de Jongh, Renate T.; den Heijer, Martin
Background Gender-affirming hormonal treatment (HT) in adult transgender people influences bone mineral density (BMD). Besides BMD, bone geometry and trabecular bone score are associated with fracture risk. However, it is not known whether bone geometry and TBS changes during HT. Purpose To investigate the bone geometry and TBS in adult transgender people at different time points, up to 25 years, of HT. Methods A total of 535 trans women and 473 trans men were included, who were divided into three groups at time of their DXA: 20–29 years, 30–39 years, and 40–59 years. Subsequently, each group was divided into different HT durations: baseline, or after 5, 15, or 25 years of HT. Hip structure analysis was performed to measure subperiosteal width, endocortical diameter, average cortical thickness, and section modulus. TBS was calculated based on lumbar spine DXA images. Results In trans women in all age groups and in young trans men, no differences were observed in periosteal width, endocortical diameter, average cortical thickness, and section modulus for different durations of HT. In trans men aged 40–59 years, subperiosteal width, endocortical diameter, and section modulus were slightly higher in the groups who were using HT compared to the (peri- or postmenopausal) baseline group. In younger trans women, TBS tended to be higher in those using HT compared to the baseline groups, and in older trans women TBS was higher in those using HT for 25 years versus baseline (+0.04, 95%CI +0.00, +0.08). In younger trans men, TBS tended to be lower in those who used HT compared to the baseline groups, and in older trans men TBS was lower in those using 5 years HT versus baseline (−0.05, 95%CI −0.08, −0.01). Conclusion No differences in cortical bone geometry parameters were found during different HT-durations. TBS increased in trans women and decreased in trans men, indicating that estrogens have positive effects on TBS. These data may be helpful in determining what sex reference values for calculating T-scores and Z-scores in adult transgender people should be used.