Guan, Wen-Min; Pan, Wei; Yu, Wei; Cao, Wei; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Zai-Zhu; Song, Xiao-Jing; Li, Yan-Ling; Tian, Jun-Ping; Xu, Ying; Li, Tai-Sheng; Hsieh, Evelyn
Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in persons with HIV (PWH). BMD provides information only about bone mineral quantity. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a noninvasive tool that estimates bone microarchitecture. The aim of this study is to measure BMD and TBS of Chinese PWH after one-year ART.
Methods: We designed a retrospective study of adult Chinese PWH. Patients with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan prior to ART initiation, and again 48 weeks later were included. Information regarding demographic and clinical history, HIV treatment history, BMD and TBS were collected. We analyzed differences in BMD and TBS over 48 weeks and associations between key risk factors and changes in BMD and TBS.
Results: Our study included 233 PWH (mean age = 36.6 ± 11.1 years). Before ART initiation, 19.3% of PWH had normal BMD but abnormal TBS. Both BMD and TBS decreased after one-year ART. TDF and LPV/r-containing regimens were associated with greater declines in BMD at different site. Traditional risk factors such as old age, low BMI and female sex were associated with lower baseline TBS. Greater change in TBS over one year was associated with lower BMI and lower baseline CD4+ cell count, but unlike BMD measures, it was not correlated with treatment with TDF and LPV/r in our study population.
Conclusions: We present the first longitudinal analysis of change in TBS over 48 weeks compared with BMD among Asian PWH receiving ART. Before ART initiation, approximately 20% of PWH with impaired bone microarchitecture would not have been identified if DXA were used alone to assess for bone damage. Both BMD and TBS decreased after one-year ART. Change in TBS was not associated with different antiretroviral agents.
The translational potential of this article: The trabecular microarchitecture measured indirectly by TBS may provide clinicians additional information about bone damage in PWH.