Zhang Z, Lin Q, Xu Y, Guan W, Song X, Li Y, Zhang Y, Li T, Yu W.
This is the first study to report both greater BMD loss and muscle loss in Chinese HIV-infected males with lamivudine (3TC)-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-efavirenz (EFV) regimen, which highlights the importance of closely monitoring muscle mass and bone mineral density in patients treated with 3TC-TDF-EFV regimen and provides a foundation for the clinical intervention of sarcopenia and osteoporosis.
Purpose: To compare the effect initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have on muscle mass, bone mineral density (BMD), and trabecular bone score (TBS).
Methods: We designed a retrospective study of ART-naive Chinese males with HIV (MWH) undergoing two different regimens at 1-year follow-up. All subjects underwent dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) for BMD and muscle mass prior to ART initiation, and again 1 year later. TBS iNsight software was used for TBS. We analyzed differences in muscle mass, BMD, and TBS after different treatment arms and associations between ART regimens and changes in them.
Results: A total of 76 men were included (mean age 31.83 ± 8.75 years). Mean absolute muscle mass decreased significantly from baseline to follow-up after initiation of lamivudine (3TC)-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-efavirenz (EFV), whereas increased significantly after initiation of 3TC-zidovudine(AZT)/Stavudine(d4T)-Nevirapine(NVP). Assignment to 3TC-TDF-EFV resulted in greater percentage loss in BMD at lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) compared to 3TC-AZT/d4T-NVP, but this difference was not statistically significant at the femoral neck BMD and TBS. In the multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for covariates, the 3TC-TDF-EFV regimen was associated with higher odds of decreased appendicular and total muscle mass, LS and TH BMD.
Conclusions: This is the first study to report not only greater BMD loss but also muscle loss in Chinese MWH with 3TC-TDF-EFV regimen. Our work highlights the importance of closely monitoring muscle mass and BMD in patients treated with 3TC-TDF-EFV regimen and provides a foundation for the clinical intervention of sarcopenia and osteoporosis in them.