Beavers, Kristen M.; Walkup, Michael P.; Weaver, Ashley A.; Lenchik, Leon; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Register, Thomas C.; Shapses, Sue A.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Rejeski, W. Jack
The objective of this study was to determine the ability of either aerobic or resistance training to counter weight-loss-associated bone loss in older adults. There were 187 older adults (67 years, 70% women, 64% white) with obesity (BMI = 34.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2) and cardiovascular disease and/or metabolic syndrome who were randomized to participate in an 18-month, community-based trial, with a follow-up assessment at 30 months. Intervention arms included: weight loss alone (WL, 7% to 10% baseline weight), WL plus aerobic training (WL + AT), and WL plus resistance training (WL + RT), as well as DXA-acquired total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and trabecular bone score (TBS). Biomarkers of bone turnover (procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide, C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen) were measured at baseline, 6, 18, and 30 (aBMD and TBS only) months. CT-acquired hip and spine volumetric BMD (vBMD), cortical thickness, and bone strength were measured in a subset at baseline (n = 55) and 18 months. Total hip aBMD was reduced by 2% in all groups at 18 months, with a primary analysis showing no significant treatment effects for any DXA, biomarker, or CT outcome. After adjustment for WL and follow-up at 30 months, secondary analyses revealed that total hip [−0.018 (−0.023 to −0.012) g/cm2 versus −0.025 (−0.031 to −0.019) g/cm2, p = 0.05] and femoral neck [−0.01 (−0.009 to 0.008) g/cm2 versus −0.011 (−0.020 to −0.002) g/cm2, p = 0.06] aBMD estimates were modestly attenuated in the WL + RT group compared with the WL group. Additionally, lumbar spine aBMD was increased in the WL [0.015 (0.007 to 0.024) g/cm2] and the WL + RT [0.009 (0.000 to 0.017) g/cm2] groups compared with the WL + AT [−0.003 (−0.012 to 0.005)g/cm2] group, both p ≤ 0.01. Community-based exercise does not prevent bone loss during active WL in older adults, however, adding RT may help minimize long-term hip bone loss. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.