Leslie WD, Hans D, Silva BC.
Trabecular bone score (TBS) predicts osteoporotic fractures independent of bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore whether anti-resorptive treatment affects fracture risk prediction from TBS using a large clinical registry that includes all dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) tests for the Province of Manitoba, Canada. Cohort 1 included 53,863 individuals aged ≥ 40 years (11.4% men; mean age 64.1 years) who had not received any anti-resorptive therapy in the year prior the baseline DXA. Cohort 2 comprised 22,917 individuals aged ≥ 40 years (6% men, mean age 66.7 years) undergoing a second DXA visit. Anti-resorptive medication was initiated in the first year after DXA in 13,439 (25%) individuals from Cohort 1 (87.9% bisphosphonates); among Cohort 2 8,864 (38.7%) had received anti-resorptive medication in the year before DXA (77.8% bisphosphonates). Incident major osteoporotic fracture (MOF), hip fracture and any fracture were identified over mean follow up 8.6 and 7.0 years for Cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Area under the curve showed significant risk stratification for all fracture types and treatment levels, whether treatment was initiated after TBS measurement (Cohort 1) or prior to TBS measurement (Cohort 2). In Cox regression models, without and with covariate adjustment, fracture prediction from TBS was unaffected by anti-resorptive medication use (p-interaction >0.5 for all analyses). In conclusion, TBS was a robust predictor of fracture in models adjusted for clinical risk factors and BMD. The use of anti-resorptive therapy, either in the year before or following TBS measurement, did not attenuate fracture risk prediction by TBS compared to untreated individuals.