Muschitz, Christian; Zwick, Ralf Harun; Haschka, Judith; Dimai, Hans Peter; Rauner, Martina; Amrein, Karin; Wakolbinger, Robert; Jaksch, Peter; Eber, Ernst; Pietschmann, Peter
Chronic inflammation induces proinflammatory cytokine cascades. In addition to systemic inflammation, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, a catabolic metabolism, gonadal or thyroid dysfunction, musculoskeletal dysfunction and inactivity as well as vitamin D deficiency contribute to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Iatrogenic causes of osteoporosis are long-term use of inhaled or systemic glucocorticoids (GC). Inhalative GC application in asthma is often indicated in childhood and adolescence, but interstitial lung diseases such as chronic organizing pneumonia, COPD, sarcoid or rheumatic diseases with lung involvement are also treated with inhalative or oral GC. In patients with cystic fibrosis, malabsorption in the context of pancreatic insufficiency, hypogonadism and chronic inflammation with increased bone resorption lead to a decrease in bone structure. After lung transplantation, immunosuppression with GC is a risk factor.The underlying pneumological diseases lead to a change in the trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture and to a reduction in osteological formation and resorption markers. Hypercapnia, acidosis and vitamin D deficiency can accelerate this process and thus increase the individual risk of osteoporotic fragility fractures.A bone mineral density measurement with a T‑Score < -2.5 is a threshold value for the diagnosis of osteoporosis; in contrast the vast majority of all osteoporotic fractures occur with a T‑Score > -2.5. A history of low-trauma fracture indicates osteological therapy.All antiresorptive or anabolic drugs approved in Austria for the treatment of osteoporosis are also indicated for pneumological patients with an increased fragility fracture risk of bone fractures in accordance with the national reimbursement criteria.