Yun, Hyo Jin; Ryoo, Soo Ryeong; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Young Jun; Park, Inwhee; Shin, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Heungsoo; Jeong, Jong Cheol
Background: In the general population, the trabecular bone score (TBS) represents the bone microarchitecture and predicts fracture risk independent of bone mineral density (BMD). A few studies reported that TBS is significantly reduced in dialysis patients. Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) are accompanied by increased fracture risk, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality. We investigated whether TBS is associated with comorbidity related to CKD-MBD or frailty in hemodialysis patients.
Methods: In this prospective observational study, TBS was obtained using the TBS iNsight software program (Med-Imaps) with BMD dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images (L1-L4) from prevalent hemodialysis patients. A Tilburg frailty indicator was used to evaluate frailty, and hand grip strength and bio-impedance (InBody) were measured. A patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) was used for nutritional assessment. The history of cardiovascular events (CVE) and demographic, clinical, laboratory, and biomarker data were collated. We then followed up patients for the occurrence of CKD-MBD related complications.
Results: We enrolled 57 patients in total. The mean age was 56.8 ± 15.9 years (50.9% female). Prevalence of Diabetes mellitus (DM) was 40.4% and CVE was 36.8%. Mean TBS was 1.44 ± 0.10. TBS significantly reduced in the CVE group (1.38 ± 0.08 vs. 1.48 ± 0.10, p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis was conducted adjusting for age, sex, dialysis vintage, DM, CVE, albumin, intact parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, handgrip strength, and phosphate binder dose. Age (ß = - 0.030; p = 0.001) and CVE (ß = - 0.055; p = 0.024) were significant predictors of TBS. During the follow up period after TBS measurements (about 20 months), four deaths, seven incident fractures, and six new onset CVE were recorded. Lower TBS was associated with mortality (p = 0.049) or new onset fracture (p = 0.007, by log-rank test). Conclusion: Lower TBS was independently associated with increased age and CVE prevalence in hemodialysis patients. Mortality and fracture incidence were significantly higher in patients with lower TBS values. These findings suggest that TBS may indicate a phenotype of frailty and also a CKD-MBD phenotype reciprocal to CVE.